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Dekubitus Referenzen
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Dekubitus Referenzen


1. Royal College of Nursing (RCN). Clinical Practice Guideline: Pressure ulcer risk assessment and prevention. London 2000.
Originaldokument unter:


2. Deutsches Netzwerk für Qualitätssicherung in der Pflege (DNQP). Expertenstandard Dekubitusprophylaxe in der Pflege. Osnabrück 2000.


3. European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (EPUAP). Pressure Ulcer Prevention Guidelines. 2001.


4. Initiative Chronische Wunden (ICW). Leitlinie Dekubitus 2000. 3 Auflage. Uslar-Sohlingen. 2000.


5. Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR). Pressure ulcer in adults: prediction and prevention. Clinical Practice Guideline No.3. 1992: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.


6. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Physikalische Medizin und Rehabilitation (DGPMR). Dekubitus-Therapie und Prophylaxe. AWMF. 1999.


7. Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR). Treatment of Pressure ulcers. Clinical Practice Guideline No. 15. 1994: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.


8. Bienstein, C., et al., Dekubitus. Die Herausforderung für Pflegende. Vol. 1. 1997, Stuttgart, New York: Georg Thieme Verlag. 310.


9. Cullum, N., E.A. Nelson, and J. Nixon, Dekubitus, in Clinical Evidence, M.W. van Tulder, Editor. 2000, Verlag Hans Huber: Bern. p. 791-799.


10. Cullum N, Deeks J, Sheldon TA, Song F, Fletcher AW. Beds, mattresses and cushions for pressure sore prevention and treatment (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2001. Oxford: Update Software.


11. Rycroft-Malone, J. and E. McInnes, Pressure ulcer risk assessment and prevention guideline: Technical report. 2000, London: Royal College of Nursing.


12. Rycroft-Malone, J., The challenge of a weak evidence base - formal consensus and guideline development. Journal of Clinical Excellence, 2000. 2(1).


13. Bulletin on the effectiveness of health service interventions for decision makers (EHCB). The prevention and treatment of pressure sores: how effective are pressure-relieving interventions and risk assessment for the prevention and treatment of pressure sores? Effective Health Care, 1995. 2(1): p. 16.


14. Allman, R.M., Pressure ulcer prevalence, incidence, risk factors, and impact. Clin Geriatr Mea, 1997. 13(3): p. 421-436.


15. Collier, M.E., Pressure-reducing mattresses. J Wound Care, 1996. 5(5): p. 207-11.


16. Martin, M., B. Gretzinger, and A. Kohlschreiber, Enstehung, Prophylaxe und Therapie von Durchliegegeschwüren. Deutsches Ärzteblatt, 2000. 97(23): p. A1605-A1610.


17. McGough, A.J., A systematic review of the effectiveness of risk assessment scales used in the prevention and managment of pressure sores. 1999: MSc Thesis. University of York.


18. Salvadalena, G.D., M.L. Snyder, and K.E. Brogdon. Clinical trial of the Braden Scale on an acute care medical unit. J ET Nurs, 1992. 19(5): p. 160-5.


19. Van den Bosch, T., et al. Predictive validity of the Braden Scale and nurse perception in identifying pressure ulcer risk. Appl Nurs Res, 1996. 9(2): p. 80-6.


20. Allman, R.M., et al., Pressure ulcer risk factors among hospitalized patients with activity limitation. Jama, 1995. 273(11): p. 865-70.


21. Bliss, M., Preventing pressure sores. Lancet, 1990. 335(8701): p. 1311-2.


22. Scott, E.M., The prevention of pressure ulcers in the operating department. J Wound Care, 2000. 9(1): p. 18-21.


23. Versluysen, M., How elderly patients with femoral fracture develop pressure sores in hospital. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed), 1986. 292(6531): p. 1311-3.


24. Bergstrom, N., et al., Multi-site study of incidence of pressure ulcers and the relationship between risk level, demographic characteristics, diagnoses, and prescription of preventive interventions. J Am Geriatr Soc, 1996. 44(1): p. 22-30.


25. Bergstrom, N. and B. Braden, A prospective study of pressure sore risk among institutionalized elderly. J Am Geriatr Soc, 1992. 40(8): p. 747-58.


26. Berlowitz, D.R. and S.V. Wilking, The short-term outcome of pressure sores. J Am Geriatr Soc, 1990. 38(7): p. 748-52.


27. Clark, M. and S. Watts, The incidence of pressure sores within a National Health Service Trust hospital during 1991. J Adv Nurs, 1994. 20(1): p. 33-6.


28. Defloor, T., The risk of pressure sores: a conceptual scheme. J Clin Nurs, 1999. 8(2): p. 206-16.


29. Papantonio, C.T., J.M. Wallop, and K.B. Kolodner, Sacral ulcers following cardiac surgery: incidence and risks. Adv Wound Care, 1994. 7(2): p. 24-36.


30. Brandeis, G.H., et al., A longitudinal study of risk factors associated with the formation of pressure ulcers in nursing homes. J Am Geriatr Soc, 1994. 42(4): p. 388-93.


31. Bennet, M.A., Report of the Task Force on implications for darkly pigmented intact skin in the predicition and prevention of pressure ulcers. Adv Wound Care, 1995. 8(6): p. 34-35.


32. Gray, D.G. and M. Campbell, A randomized clinical trial of two types of foam mattresses. Journal of Tissue Viability, 1994. 4: p. 128-132.


33. Hofman, A., et al., Pressure sores and pressure-decreasing mattresses: controlled clinical trial. Lancet, 1994. 343(8897): p. 568-71.


34. Santy, J.E., M.K. Butler, and J.D. Whyman, A comparison study of 6 types of hospital mattress to determine which most effectively reduces the incidence of pressure sores in elderly patients with hip fractures in a District General Hospital. 1994, Report to Northern and Yorkshire Regional Health Authority.


35. Andersen, K.E., et al., Decubiuts prophylaxis: a prospective trial on the efficiency of alternating pressure air mattresses and water mattresses. Acta Dermatovener (Stockholm), 1982. 63: p. 227-230.


36. Inman, K.J., et al., Clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of an air suspension bed in the prevention of pressure ulcers. Jama, 1993. 269(9): p. 1139-43.


37. Nixon, J., et al., A sequential randomised controlled trial comparing a dry visco-elastic polymer pad and standard operating table mattress in the prevention of post-operative pressure sores. Int J Nurs Stud, 1998. 35(4): p. 193-203.


38. Aronovitch, S.A., A comparative, randomized, controlled study to determine safety and efficacy of preventive pressure ulcer sytems: preliminary analysis. Aquiered Pressure Ulcers. Advances in Wound care (Supplement), 1998.


39. Dunlop, V., Preliminary results of a randomized, controlled study of a pressure ulcer prevention system. Adv Wound Care, 1998. 11(3 Suppl): p. 14.


40. Scott, E.M., et al., Measurement of interface pressures in the evaluation of operating theatre mattresses. J Wound Care, 1999. 8(9): p. 437-41.


41. Ewing, M.R., et al., Further experiences in the use of sheep skins as an aid to nursing. The Australian Nurses´Journal, 1964. 9: p. 215-219.


42. Gebhardt, K. and M. Bliss, Prevention of pressure sores in orthopaedic patients - is prolonged chair nursing detrimental? Journal of Tissue Viability, 1994. 4(2): p. 51-54.


43. Defloor, T., The effect of posture and mattress on the development of pressure ulcers, in Programme for the 7th European Conference on Advances in Wound Management. 1997, Macmillian Magazines: London.


44. Colin, D., et al., Comparison of 90 degrees and 30 degrees laterally inclined positions in the prevention of pressure ulcers using transcutaneous oxygen and carbon dioxide pressures. Adv Wound Care, 1996. 9(3): p. 35-8.


45. Lim, R., et al., Clinical trial of foam cushions in the prevention of decubitis ulcers in elderly patients. J Rehabil Res Dev, 1988. 25(2): p. 19-26.


46. Conine TA, Hershler C, Daechsel D, Peel C, Pearson A. Pressure sore prophylaxis in elderly patients using polyurethane foam or Jay wheelchair cushions. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research 1994;17:123-137.


47. Clark, M., Repositioning to prevent pressure sores--what is the evidence? Nurs Stand, 1998. 13(3): p. 58-60, 62, 64.


48. Dealey, C., Managing pressure sore prevention. 1997, Salisbury: wiltshire: Quay Books.


49. Bergstrom, N., et al., Using a research-based assessment scale in clinical practice. Nurs Clin North Am, 1995. 30(3): p. 539-51.


50. Moody, B.L., et al., Impact of staff education on pressure sore development in elderly hospitalized patients. Arch Intern Med, 1988. 148(10): p. 2241-3.


51. Garber, S.L., et al., Reported pressure ulcer prevention and management techniques by persons with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 1996. 77(8): p. 744-9.


52. Cullum, N. and M. Clark, Intrinsic factors associated with pressure sores in elderly people. J Adv Nurs, 1992. 17(4): p. 427-31.


53. Pope, R., Pressure sore formation in the operating theatre: 1. Br J Nurs, 1999. 8(4): p. 211-4, 216-7.


54. Finucane, T.E., Malnutrition, tube feeding and pressure sores: data are incomplete. J Am Geriatr Soc, 1995. 43(4): p. 447-51.


55. Goldstone, L.A. and J. Goldstone, The Norton score: an early warning of pressure sores? J Adv Nurs, 1982. 7(5): p. 419-26.


56. Berlowitz, D.R. and S.V. Wilking, Risk factors for pressure sores. A comparison of cross-sectional and cohort-derived data. J Am Geriatr Soc, 1989. 37(11): p. 1043-50.


57. Dyson, R., Bed sores - the injuries hospital staff inflict on patients. Nurs Mirror, 1978. 146(24): p. 30-2.


58. Morrell, C. and Harvey G., The clinical audit handbook. Improving the quality of health care. 1999, London: Baillière Tindall.


59. Department of Health.  Benchmarking the fundamental aspects of care. 2000, London: Stationary Office.


60. Department of Health . Pressure sores: a key quality indicator. 1993, London: Stationary Office.


61. Department of Health. The Health of the Nation. 1992, London: Stationary Office.


62. Mann, T., Clinical Audit in the NHS. 1996, Leeds: NHSE.


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