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54. Garg R, Yusuf S. Overview of randomized trials of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure. Collaborative Group on ACE Inhibitor Trials. JAMA 1995; 273: 1450-6.

55. Packer, M., P. A. Poole-Wilson, et al. Comparative effects of low and high doses of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, lisinopril, on morbidity and mortality in chronic heart failure. ATLAS Study Group. Circulation 1999; 100 (23): 2312-8.

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57. The AIRE Study Investigators. Effect of ramipril on mortality and morbidity of survivors of acute myocardial infarction with clinical evidence of heart failure. The Acute Infarction Ramipril Efficacy (AIRE) Study Investigators. Lancet 1993; 342: 821-8.

58. Pfeffer MA, Braunwald E, Moye LA, Basta L, Brown EJ, Cuddy TE, et al. Effect of captopril on mortality and morbidity in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction. Results of the survival and ventricular enlargement trial. The SAVE Investigators. N Engl J Med 1992; 327: 669-77.

59. Heidenreich PA, Lee TT, Massie BM. Effect of beta-blockade on mortality in patients with heart failure: A meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997; 30: 27-34.

60. Packer M, Bristow MR, Cohn JN, Colucci WS, Fowler MB, Gilbert EM, et al. The effect of carvedilol on morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic heart failure. U.S. Carvedilol Heart Failure Study Group. N Engl J Med 1996; 334: 1349-55.

61. Randomised, placebo-controlled trial of carvedilol in patients with congestive heart failure due to ischaemic heart disease. Australia/New Zealand Heart Failure Research Collaborative Group. Lancet 1997; 349: 375-80.

62. MERIT.HF Study Group. Effect of metoprolol CR/XL in chronic heart failure: metoprolol CR/XL randomised intervention trial in congestive heart failure (MERIT.HF). Lancet 1999;353:2001.7.

63. The Digitalis Investigation Group. The effect of digoxin on mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure. N Engl J Med 1997; 336: 525-33.

64. Packer M, Gheorghiade M, Young JB, Costantini PJ, Adams KF, Cody RJ, et al. Withdrawal of digoxin from patients with chronic heart failure treated with angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors. N Engl J Med 1993; 329: 1-7.

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67. Crozier I, Ikram H, Awan N, Cleland J, Stephen N, Dickstein K, et al. Losartan in heart failure. Haemodynamic effects and tolerability. Losartan Hemodynamic Study Group. Circulation 1995; 91: 691-7.

68. Dickstein K, Chang P, Willenheimer R, Haunso S, Remes J, Hall C, et al. Comparison of the effects of losartan and captopril on clinical status and exercise performance in patients with moderate or severe chronic heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 1995; 26: 438-45.

69. Lang RM, Elkayam U, Yellen LG, Krauss D, McKelvie RS, Vaughan DE, et al. Comparative effects of losartan and enalapril on exercise capacity and clinical status in patients with heart failure. The Losartan Pilot Exercise Study Investigators. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997; 30: 983-91.

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136. Keteyiann SJ, et al. Exercise training in patients with heart failure: a randomized controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 1996;124:1051–1057.

137. Effectiveness of spironolactone added to an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and a loop diuretic for severe chronic congestive heart failure (the Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study [RALES]).  Am J Cardiol 1996; 78 (8): 902-7.

138. Dahlstrom, U. and E. Karlsson. Captopril and spironolactone therapy for refractory congestive heart failure. Am J Cardiol. 1993; 71(3): 29A-33A.

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140. Dunkman, W. B., G. R. Johnson, et al. Incidence of thromboembolic events in congestive heart failure. The V- HeFT VA Cooperative Studies Group. Circulation 1993; 87 (6 Suppl): VI94-101.

141. Al-Khadra, A. S., D. N. Salem, et al. Warfarin anticoagulation and survival: a cohort analysis from the Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction. J Am Coll Cardiol 1998; 31(4): 749-53.

142. Pullicino, P. M., J. L. Halperin, et al. Stroke in patients with heart failure and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Neurology 2000; 54 (2): 288-94.

143. Spaulding, C., B. Charbonnier, et al. Acute hemodynamic interaction of aspirin and ticlopidine with enalapril: results of a double-blind, randomized comparative trial. Circulation 1998; 98 (8): 757-65.

144. Leor, J., H. Reicher-Reiss, et al. Aspirin and mortality in patients treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: a cohort study of 11,575 patients with coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 1999; 33 (7): 1920-5

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